Dowody w postępowaniu prywatnoskargowym

Doświadczenie zawodowe wskazuje, iż pokrzywdzeni w sprawach wszczętych z prywatnego aktu oskarżenia, mają problemy z udowodnieniem swoich twierdzeń, czyli pozyskiwaniem dowodów np. na to że zostali znieważeni, czy naruszona została ich nietykalność cielesna.

W ramach wstępu należy wskazać jakie dowody mogą być przeprowadzane w postępowaniu karnym. Otóż dowody można podzielić na:

  • osobowe;

  • rzeczowe

  • z dokumentów.

Dodatkowo można jeszcze wyróżnić dowody bezpośrednie i pośrednie, obciążające oraz odciążające lub dowody pierwotne i pochodne. Jednakże w tym artykule skupię się na dowodach osobowych, rzeczowych oraz z dokumentów.

Pokrzywdzony składając do Sądu prywatny akt oskarżenia, powinien zaprezentować Sądowi odpowiednie dowody na poparcie swojej tezy, czyli przedstawić dowód osobowy, rzeczowy lub z dokumentów. Jednakże powstaje pytanie czym są dowody wyżej wyszczególnione?

Dowód osobowy

Dowodem osobowym są zeznania świadka, który ma wiedzę na temat podnoszonej przez pokrzywdzonego okoliczności. Podkreślenia wymaga fakt, że w większości spraw z zakresu prywatnego aktu oskarżenia jest to główny dowód w sprawie.

Dowód rzeczowy

Dowodem rzeczowym, jak jego nazwa wskazuje jest jakakolwiek rzecz, która potwierdza popełnienie przestępstwa. Dla przykładu zostawione odciski linii papilarnych lub pozostawiony na miejscu przestępstwa przedmiot, którym przestępstwo popełniono.

Dowód z dokumentów

Dowód z dokumentu to dokument urzędowy lub prywatny. Doświadczenie zawodowe pokazuje, że takie dowody w sprawach z prywatnego aktu oskarżenia występują niezmiernie rzadko. Poza tym, aby można było przeprowadzić dowód z dokumentu musi być on podpisany przez wystawiającego ten dokument. W związku z powyższym należy zaznaczyć, że wydruk z maila, wiadomość sms lub wiadomość wysłana faxem nie będzie dowodem z dokumentu ale nie oznacza to, że taki wydruk nie będzie dowodem w ogóle (szerzej na ten temat będzie mowa w odrębnym artykule).

Natomiast należy podkreślić, że dokumentem będzie dla przykładu pismo procesowe, w którym ktoś Twoją osobę obraził, ponieważ wystawca dokumentu podpisał się pod jego treścią.

Podsumowując w sprawach z oskarżenia prywatnego najważniejszymi dowodami będą zeznania osób, które były naocznymi świadkami popełnienia przestępstwa, wszelkie wydruki z maila, sms lub fax oraz pisma procesowe, w których ktoś Cię znieważa lub zniesławia. Warto abyś miał na uwadze, aby w prywatnym akcie oskarżenia wszelkie powoływane przez Ciebie dowody załączyć oraz opisać, tak by Sąd nie wydał postanowienia o umorzeniu postępowania ze względu na brak danych dostatecznie uzasadniających popełnienia przestępstwa.

 

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